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Ambulance and Paramedic


This page provides information and data on the Ambulance and Paramedic sector and workforce.

The Ambulance and Paramedic sector delivers fundamental pre-hospital and out-of-hospital care services. Services can be provided in both emergency and non-emergency scenarios, and workers in the sector carry out important roles in terms of injury/illness prevention, health promotion and the determination of patients' long-term outcomes. Demand for emergency and non-emergency health care services both in pre-hospital and out-of-hospital settings has been growing steadily, and the latest statistics show 3.5 million patients were assessed, treated or transported by ambulance service organisations from 2017–2018.

In 2017–2018, the total full-time equivalent (FTE) salaried workforce in ambulance services in Australia was 17,883, of whom 81% were in operative ambulance roles and 19% were in corporate and operational support roles. Strong employment growth is expected for Ambulance Officer and Paramedic roles over the next five years, with the majority of this growth, expected to be across Paramedic job roles.

Volunteering is a significant practice across the sector and in 2017–2018, 6,600 volunteers were involved in ambulance services, with the majority (92%) active in operational roles rather than administrative or support function areas. Volunteering within operational roles has been increasing steadily over the past five years.

The Ambulance and Paramedic Training Package Products include seven qualifications that support pathways to employment in various job roles across the sector. The Ambulance and Paramedic Industry Reference Committee (IRC) has responsibility for these seven qualifications within the HLT – Health Training Package.

There is no new Training Package Product development work proposed for 2019–2020. However, work is currently being conducted to update one skill set, seven qualifications and 14 units of competency in the Ambulance and Paramedic Training Package.

Information sourced from the Ambulance and Paramedic IRC’s 2019 Skills Forecast.

For information on other health-related training and employment, visit the Health industry page and the various sectors.

All data sources are available at the end of the page.

IRC and Skills Forecasts

Employment trends

Employment snapshot

The employment level for Ambulance Officers and Paramedics grew overall between 2000 and 2019. In 2019 there were 19,500 Ambulance Officers and Paramedics, and this number is projected to grow to 22,400 by 2024.

Training trends

Training snapshot

In 2018, there were 4,180 program enrolments in Ambulance and Paramedic-related qualifications and about 2,450 program completions. Enrolments increased between 2015 and 2017 before decreasing in 2018. Completions continued to increase year on year between 2015 and 2018. A little under a half (about 45%) of enrolments in 2018 were at the certificate II level, with the rest being at or above the certificate III level. About 45% of enrolments were in First Response-related qualifications and a further 24% in Health Care and Basic Health Care. The main intended occupation was Ambulance Officer, followed by Emergency Service Worker.

Delivery of training was mainly split across private training providers (41%), enterprise providers (30%) and community education providers (12%). About 80% of funding for subjects was domestic fee for service.

Victoria had the single highest proportion of students enrolled in Ambulance and Paramedic-related qualifications in 2018, with 27%, followed by New South Wales with 20% and South Australia with 20%.

More than a quarter of training was delivered in Victoria (26%), followed by South Australia (19%), New South Wales (19%), Western Australia (17%) and Queensland (14%).

There were no apprentice and trainee commencements or completions in Ambulance and Paramedic-related qualifications in 2017 or 2018, following a downward trend of commencements from 2013 and completions from 2014.

For more data specific to your occupation, industry or training package, please visit NCVER’s VET Students by Industry. If you are prompted to log in, please select cancel and you will continue to be directed to the program.

For more data specific to your region please visit NCVER’s Atlas of Total VET.

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Industry insights

Industry insights on skills needs

The Ambulance and Paramedic IRC's 2019 Skills Forecast identified the top priority skills for the sector as critical thinking, emotional intelligence, problem solving, self-management, and teamwork and communication.

The top five identified generic skills are:

  • Communication / Virtual collaboration / Social intelligence
  • Design mindset / Thinking critically / System thinking / Solving problems
  • Learning agility / Information literacy / Intellectual autonomy and self-management (adaptability)
  • Customer service / Marketing
  • Technology.

According to the job vacancy data, the top requested skills by employers in the sector were problem solving and written communication. The top employers were the New South Wales Government and the Government of South Australia.

According to the Ambulance and Paramedic IRC's 2019 Skills Forecast the sector supported by the Ambulance and Paramedic Training Package has been experiencing several challenges which are impacting workforce skills requirements, including:

  • Skills shortages and the need to consider work-integrated learning to better transition graduates into practice
  • Maximising the wellbeing and resilience of the workforce
  • Low retention of staff
  • Government policy/legislative changes and the impact the National Registration and Accreditation Scheme will have on the future workforce
  • An ageing population and an increased demand for services.

Skills shortages

The transition to practice can be difficult for graduates of the Ambulance and Paramedic Training Package Products. There is currently not nearly enough apprenticeship training in the sector. Exposure to the workplace environment is more commonly gained through experiences such as volunteering, traineeships and on-the-job training. To ease the transition into practice for Ambulance and Paramedic Training Package graduates, it would be productive to consider work placement during study to establish job-related foundational knowledge and experience before graduates enter the workforce.

The nature of providing pre-hospital and out-of-hospital health care services involves a range of everyday stressors such as long hours on shift-work schedules, possible heavy workloads and physically demanding and emotionally challenging shifts. In addition to these relatively common workplace risks, ambulance service-related roles are often the first to respond to an emergency or communicate with distressed patients. Due to these interactions, individuals in ambulance service-related roles have an increased risk of being repeatedly exposed to traumatic events, such as death or violence, which can trigger increases in workplace stress and can undermine individuals' resilience. These experiences can either have an immediate effect or may build up over weeks, months or years. The importance of training first responders to develop a range of skills to build resilience and cope with the demands of their jobs is paramount, and Training Package Products should evolve with the strategies as outlined in good practice frameworks to maximise workforce wellbeing.

Mapping VET qualifications across registration requirements and, more widely, across the post-registration occupational environment is important in order to be able to gain an understanding of the supportive ways in which the Training Package Products can contribute to facilitating career pathways.

Australia, like most developed nations, is experiencing a long-term ageing of its population. Demand for ambulance services are among the many health services which are expected to significantly increase due to the growing ageing population and the related trend in favour of senior Australians continuing to live independently in their own homes.

The report, The Country Ambulance Strategy: Driving Equity for Country WA – Final Draft, by Ernst & Young, Australia examines the goal of a sustainable and skilled workforce capable of meeting the needs of the population now and into the future. The analysis found that:

  • The volunteer model is the foundation of country ambulance service delivery in Western Australia (WA). Many Sub Centres and local Governments are concerned about the long term sustainability of a reliance on volunteers for front line services, citing aging and transient populations, as well as a general decline in volunteerism.
  • The qualifications required for the ambulance workforce do not align with any registered training organisation or nationally recognised course making it difficult to structure a career pathway.
  • The number of people willing and available to perform the role of a paid or volunteer ambulance officer remains limited.
  • Volunteers and Paramedics expressed a need and strong desire for national recognition of volunteer training and improved career pathways. Providing this to volunteers would help to support the volunteer model and may help to boost and sustain volunteer numbers in the future.
  • A multifaceted approach is required to broaden the pool of available resources that can be drawn upon when needed, while building and sustaining the current workforce roles.
  • Some Paramedics felt that a movement towards national regulation of the profession would strengthen the professionalism and standards of the service, but may present issues with working alongside a non-regulated volunteer workforce. These concerns strengthen the case for having nationally recognised training and qualification.

Recommendations in the report include:

  • St John Ambulance – Provide sufficient administrative and corporate support direct to country ambulance sub centres in order to free up volunteers to focus on service delivery.
  • St John Ambulance – Research, trial and implement alternate workforce and training models (including the use of shared staffing and virtual support) and prioritise this at locations which have difficulty maintaining a sustainable workforce.
  • WA Country Health Service led – Provide the volunteer ambulance workforce with the opportunity to obtain qualifications through an articulated structured training pathway which aligns with the Australian Qualification Framework and supports career progression.


Links and resources

Data sources and notes

Department of Employment, 2018, Employment Projections, available from the Labour Market Information Portal:

  • by ANZSCO, selected occupations, employment projections to May 2023
    • 4111 Ambulance Officers and Paramedics.

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2018, Employed persons by occupation unit group of main job (ANZSCO), Sex, State and Territory, August 1986 onwards 6291.0.55.003 - EQ08, viewed 1st November 2018

  • Employed total by ANZSCO 4 digit occupations, 2000 to 2018, May quarter
    • 4111 Ambulance Officers and Paramedics.

Training data has been extracted from the National VET Provider Collection, Total VET Students and Courses from the following training package or qualifications:

  • HLT Health Training Package
  • Ambulance Communications
    • HLT31015 - Certificate III in Ambulance Communications (Call-taking)
    • HLT31912 - Certificate III in Ambulance Communications (Call-taking)
    • HLT41015 - Certificate IV in Ambulance Communications (Dispatch)
    • HLT41107 - Certificate IV in Ambulance Communications
    • HLT41112 - Certificate IV in Ambulance Communications
  • First Response
    • HLT21015 - Certificate II in Medical Service First Response
    • HLT21107 - Certificate II in Emergency Medical Service First Response
    • HLT21112 - Certificate II in Emergency Medical Service First Response
  • Health Care and Basic Health Care
    • HLT31215 - Certificate III in Basic Health Care
    • HLT33107 - Certificate III in Basic Health Care
    • HLT33112 - Certificate III in Basic Health Care
    • HLT41007 - Certificate IV in Health Care (Ambulance)
    • HLT41012 - Certificate IV in Health Care (Ambulance)
    • HLT41115 - Certificate IV in Health Care
  • Non-Emergency Transport
    • HLT30207 - Certificate III in Non-Emergency Client Transport
    • HLT30212 - Certificate III in Non-Emergency Client Transport
    • HLT31115 - Certificate III in Non-Emergency Patient Transport
  • Paramedical Science
    • HLT50407 - Diploma of Paramedical Science (Ambulance)
    • HLT50412 - Diploma of Paramedical Science (Ambulance)
    • HLT51015 - Diploma of Paramedical Science
    • HLT60307 - Advanced Diploma of Paramedical Science (Ambulance)

This includes superseded qualifications and training packages.

Data covers a range of selected student and training characteristics in the following categories and years:

2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 program enrolments

  • 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 program completions.

Total VET students and courses data is reported for the calendar year. Program enrolments are the qualifications, courses and skill-sets in which students are enrolled in a given period. For students enrolled in multiple programs, all programs are counted. Program completion indicates that a student has completed a structured and integrated program of education or training. Location data uses student residence. Subject enrolment is registration of a student at a training delivery location for the purpose of undertaking a module, unit of competency or subject. For more information on the terms and definitions, please refer to the Total VET students and courses: terms and definitions document. 

Low counts (less than 5) are not reported to protect client confidentiality.

Percentages are rounded to one decimal place. This can lead to situations where the total sum of proportions in a chart may not add up to exactly 100%.

HLT Health Training Package apprentice and trainee data has been extracted from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection, including:

  • 2010 to 2017 commencements
  • 2010 to 2017 completions 
  • 2017 apprentices and trainees in-training October to December 2017 collection, by qualification and state and territory of data submitter.

Priority skills data have been extracted from the Ambulance and Paramedic IRC’s 2019 Skills Forecast.

Job vacancy data have been extracted from Burning Glass Technologies 2018, Labor Insight Real-time Labor Market Information Tool, Burning Glass Technologies, Boston, viewed July 2018,

Data shown represent most requested generic skills and occupations according to internet job postings in Australia between July 2015 and June 2018 filtered by ANZSIC and ANZSCO classification levels listed below.

ANZSCO occupations have been used as industry filters because they provide more relevant job vacancy data for this sector.

  • Generic skills / Occupations
    • 4111 Ambulance Officers and Paramedics.
Updated: 05 Nov 2021
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